How “Crypto” Currencies Work – A Brief Overview Of Bitcoin, Ethereum & Ripple

“Crypto” – or “crypto currencies” – are a type of software system which provides transactional functionality to users through the Internet. The most important feature of the system is their decentralized nature – typically provided by the blockchain database system.Blockchain and “crypto currencies” have become major elements to the global zeitgeist recently; typically as a result of the “price” of Bitcoin skyrocketing. This has lead millions of people to participate in the market, with many of the “Bitcoin exchanges” undergoing massive infrastructure stresses as the demand soared.The most important point to realize about “crypto” is that although it actually serves a purpose (cross-border transactions through the Internet), it does not provide any other financial benefit. In other words, its “intrinsic value” is staunchly limited to the ability to transact with other people; NOT in the storing / disseminating of value (which is what most people see it as).The most important thing you need to realize is that “Bitcoin” and the like are payment networks – NOT “currencies”. This will be covered more deeply in a second; the most important thing to realize is that “getting rich” with BTC is not a case of giving people any better economic standing – it’s simply the process of being able to buy the “coins” for a low price and sell them higher.

To this end, when looking at “crypto”, you need to first understand how it actually works, and where its “value” really lies…Decentralized Payment Networks… As mentioned, the key thing to remember about “Crypto” is that it’s predominantly a decentralized payment network. Think Visa/Mastercard without the central processing system.This is important because it highlights the real reason why people have really began looking into the “Bitcoin” proposition more deeply; it gives you the ability to send/receive money from anyone around the world, so long as they have your Bitcoin wallet address.The reason why this attributes a “price” to the various “coins” is because of the misconception that “Bitcoin” will somehow give you the ability to make money by virtue of being a “crypto” asset. It doesn’t.The ONLY way that people have been making money with Bitcoin has been due to the “rise” in its price – buying the “coins” for a low price, and selling them for a MUCH higher one. Whilst it worked out well for many people, it was actually based off the “greater fool theory” – essentially stating that if you manage to “sell” the coins, it’s to a “greater fool” than you.This means that if you’re looking to get involved with the “crypto” space today, you’re basically looking at buying any of the “coins” (even “alt” coins) which are cheap (or inexpensive), and riding their price rises until you sell them off later on. Because none of the “coins” are backed by real-world assets, there is no way to estimate when/if/how this will work.Future GrowthFor all intents-and-purposes, “Bitcoin” is a spent force.

The epic rally of December 2017 indicated mass adoption, and whilst its price will likely continue to grow into the $20,000+ range, buying one of the coins today will basically be a huge gamble that this will occur.The smart money is already looking at the majority of “alt” coins (Ethereum/Ripple etc) which have a relatively small price, but are continually growing in price and adoption. The key thing to look at in the modern “crypto” space is the way in which the various “platform” systems are actually being used.Such is the fast-paced “technology” space; Ethereum & Ripple are looking like the next “Bitcoin” – with a focus on the way in which they’re able to provide users with the ability to actually utilize “decentralized applications” (DApps) on top of their underlying networks to get functionality to work.This means that if you’re looking at the next level of “crypto” growth, it’s almost certainly going to come from the various platforms you’re able to identify out there.

Topics in Networking for Project and Thesis

TCP/IP Protocol

TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) is a set of rules to access the internet with interconnection of various internet-based devices. We can say it is a communication protocol in which there is a host with access to the internet. This is a good topic for an M.Tech thesis in networking. If you are planning to choose this networking topic for research, then here is some basic introduction to this.

TCP/IP provides end to end data transmission between devices along with some other functionalities like addressing, mapping and acknowledgement. TCP/IP is a combination of two protocols. TCP controls the messages by dividing them into packets. IP controls the transmission of these packets from sender to the receiver.

TCP/IP protocol layers

Following are the four layers of TCP/IP:

Application layer

Transport layer

Internet layer

Physical layer

Working of TCP/IP protocol

Client/Server model is used as a mode of communication by TCP/IP. It works in the following way:

Application layer consists of various applications for data exchange with use of protocols like HTTP(Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP(File Transfer Protocol), SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

Transport layer provides end-to-end communication between the host and the user. It uses protocol UDP(User Datagram Protocol).

Internet layer is responsible for transfer of packets over the network and uses IP(Internet Protocol) for this purpose.

Physical layer provides interconnection between the nodes.

Advantages of TCP/IP protocol

It can be easily modified.

It is compatible with all the operating systems.

It is scalable in determining the most appropriate path.

Thus it is a good topic for M.Tech thesis as well as for research. A student can get thesis help on this topic from experts specialized in thesis guidance. You can also explore the internet for further details on this topic.


Another good computer networking topic for an M.Tech thesis is NS2. NS stands for Network Simulator. It is an open-source, discrete-event based network simulator mainly used for research purpose and for teaching. It provides help in simulating routing protocols like IP, TCP, UDP etc. It creates a simulation environment for studying the network. Following steps are followed while creating a simulation environment:

Topology Definition

Development of the model

Configuration of the link


Analysis of the problem


NS2 create network topologies and then examines the behavior of the network under any event. The behavior is analyzed by tracing down the events. NS2 provides text-based as well as animation-based simulations.

Advantages of NS2

It has the ability to support multiple protocols.

It can represent network traffic graphically.

It can also support multiple algorithms for routing and queuing.

NS2 is a very good topic for an M.Tech thesis in computer networking field. You will not only get theoretical knowledge but also practical experience of network simulator tool. You can get thesis help about NS2 from an expert who has practical knowledge about how to use this tool.


MANET stands for mobile ad hoc Network and is another good choice for an M.Tech thesis topic in networking. In MANET, the nodes are self-configurable and have the ability to move freely in any direction and can link with other devices frequently. MANET was originally used as military project in defense. MANET have the challenges of weak signal strength, reliability, power consumption along with some other problems.

Characteristics of MANET

Each node is independent in nature i.e. each node act as the host as well as the router.

It is based on distributed nature of operation for security and configuration.

The network is dynamic in nature I.e each node can join and exit the network at any time.

The nodes in the network are associated with less memory and power.

In MANET, the bandwidth remains fluctuating.

MANET creates a symmetric environment such that all the nodes have identical features like responsibilities and capabilities.

Hurdles in the path of MANET

There are certain hurdles in the path of MANET, which it has to overcome. Some of these are:

The reliability of the transmission is affected by certain factors like data loss, interference, and blockage.

The rate of transmission is limited to a certain range thus there is reduced data rate.

Packet loss can occur while transmission of data.

Frequent path breaks.

Lack of firewall results in security issues in the network.

This was just the introduction to MANET to give an overview of what it is if you are going with this topic for your M.Tech thesis.

Network Security

Network Security is the set of rules to ensure the safety of the network of an organization or personal network. You can choose this topic for your M.Tech thesis if you have complete understanding of how the data is transferred over the network. Network Security also include security of physical hardware devices. Network Security in software means providing authorized access to the network by means of ids and passwords.

Whenever a user tries to access the network, his authenticity is checked by means of ids and passwords. This is done to prevent any malicious user entering the network by the motive of hacking it.

Types of attacks to network

Active Attack – In this type of attack, a hacker tries to make changes to data while it is being sent from one node to another.

Passive Attack – In this type of attack, an outsider monitors system of the organization consistently to find vulnerable ports.

Network Security Tools

Following are some of the tools employed in network security:






Thus if you really have significant knowledge(practical + theoretical) of networking tools, security

measures then you should choose this topic for M.Tech thesis. Besides, you will get thesis help on this topic from computer networking experts.

Network Topologies

Network Topology is the arrangement of nodes in the network both physical and logical. It is an easy topic for M.Tech thesis. Following are some of the common physical topologies:

Bus – In bus topology, each node is connected to the main cable known as bus such that every node is directly connected to every other node.

Star – In star topology, each node is connected to a central hub such that all the nodes are indirectly connected to each other.

Ring – In this topology, the nodes form a closed loop such that the adjacent nodes are in direct connection with each other.

Token Ring – In token ring topology, a protocol is used. A token is passed from one node to another. A node that want to tansfer data should acquire the token.

Mesh – In mesh network, each node is directly connected to every other node. It can be full mesh or partial mesh network.

Tree – It is the interconnection of bus topology and star topology.

Daisy Chain – In this topology, each node is connected to two other nodes but do not form a closed loop like ring topology.

Hybrid – It is a combination of two or more topologies.

If you are afraid of complex topics in networking for M.Tech thesis, then this topic is for. It is relatively simple to understand and work on. Just go for it.


It is another major topic in computer networking and also a good choice for thesis or project. Ipv4 is the fourth version of internet protocol while Ipv6 is the sixth version of internet protocol.

Characteristics of IPv4

It uses 32-bit address.

The address is written in decimal separated by dots.

The header includes a checksum.

Broadcast addresses are used to send data packets to other nodes.

In this the Internet Protocol Security is optional.

Characteristics of Ipv6

It uses 128-bit address.

The address is written in hexadecimal separated by colons.

The header does not include a checksum.

Broadcast addresses are not used to send data packets.

The Internet Security Protocol is compulsory.

It is a good area to study how data transfer takes place over the internet. You will study about the IP data packets of Ipv4 and Ipv6. You can select this as your M.Tech thesis topic.

OSI Model

OSI stands for open system interconnection. It is another good topic for an M.Tech thesis in computer networking field. It provides a networking framework to implement protocols in layers. There are seven layers of OSI Model:

1. Physical Layer – This layer is responsible for transferring digital data from source to the destination.

2. Data Link Layer – This layer checks error in data along with the MAC address. It turns bits into data frames.

3. Network Layer – This layer checks whether the data has reached the destination or not by examining the source and the destination address.

4. Transport Layer – This layer transfers data over the network by using TCP protocol.

5. Session Layer – This layer manages the events and keep them in sequence. It supports multiple types of connections.

6. Presentation Layer – It looks after the syntax along with encryption and decryption for the application layer above it.

7. Application Layer – It provides end-to-end user applications using protocols like HTTP, FTP, SMTP.

It is different from TCP/IP model. You will get thesis guide on this topic from computer networking experts.


It stands for Wireless Local Area Network. It can be another good choice for an M.Tech thesis topic in computer networking. It is wireless distribution method that uses high-frequency radio waves with a single access point to the internet. In other words, it is a wireless communication between two or more devices such that users can move around in a limited range area. It is most commonly used in homes or offices. The component connected to WLAN is referred to as the station. There are two types of stations – Access Point


Access Points are the base stations that transmit and receive radio frequencies for wireless enabled devices. Clients are the mobile phones, laptops, desktops connected to the wireless network.

Modes of Operation of WLAN

There are two modes of operation of WLAN:

Infrastructure – In infrastructure mode, base station act as the access point and all the nodes communicate through this point.

Ad hoc – In Ad hoc mode, mobile devices transmit data directly using peer to peer method. In this, there is no base station.

WLAN Advantages

It can support a large number of devices.

It is easy to set up wireless LAN than installing cables for wired network.

It is easier to access wireless network than a wired network.

WLAN Disadvantages

It is difficult to expand the network.

It faces security issues like hacking.

Interference is another problem of WLAN.

WLAN is another easier topic for an M.Tech thesis. It is used everywhere. You can take thesis help on this topic from networking professionals.


It is the science of maintaining privacy of data. It is also easy topic to choose for your M.Tech thesis in networking. There are three main objectives of cryptography used in transferring data over the network:




Cryptography employs two techniques for maintaining the privacy of data:

Encryption – In encryption, the plain text is converted into some other form known as cipher text.

Decryption – In this technique, the converted text I.e the cipher text is translated back to the original text.

There are two algorithms for cryptography. In a symmetric key, both the sender and the receiver share the same key for encryption and decryption.

In an assymmetric key, both the users have different keys respectively for encryption and decryption.

This is a familiar topic and very easy to understand. Take the guidance of a thesis expert about this area to start with this topic.

IEEE 802

IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. IEEE 802 is a very challenging and a very good topic for your thesis. IEEE 802 comes under IEEE and deal with LAN(Local Area Network) and MAN(Metropolitan Area Network). It specifies certain services and protocols for data link layer and physical layer of OSI model. IEEE is further subdivided into 22 parts that cover a wide range of services.

IEEE 802 subdivides data link layer into two layers namely: Logical Link Layer(LLC)

Media Access Control(MAC)

You can choose any of its subfields as a part of your project or thesis. It is a very good area to explore.

These were some of the few topics for an M.Tech thesis in computer networking. You can also choose any one of these for research in networking or for your project. You can explore more on these topics.